Food is any material eaten to supply nutrition to an organisms. Food is generally of vegetable, animal, or fungi origin, and contains necessary nutrients, including protein, vitamins, carbohydrates, fats, or minerals. Food intake in human beings primarily comprises of all the food items that are able to meet the requirements of the body system. This implies that humans require only a select amount of food, which can be consumed regularly and consequently helps to maintain a normal human body weight. Eating too much food results in excessive fat gain, and excessive carbohydrate loss, which can result in overweight.
Carbohydrates are those materials, which are broken down to glucose via the liver, in order to convert it into blood sugar for the use of the body. They occur naturally in many foods, especially fruits, vegetables, legumes, seeds, nuts and whole grains. Examples of the most widely occurring carbohydrates are starch-based foods, such as potatoes, rice, bread, and pasta; sugars, such as sucrose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and galactose; and dairy products, which include milk, cheese, yogurt, and butter. Foods that contain a considerable amount of fiber, including certain vegetables, beans, and whole grains, may also assist in reducing weight.
Diets, which consist of a combination of carbohydrates, protein, vitamins and minerals, are broken down and absorbed by the body to be used as energy. The major function of the digestive system is to break down the food into simple sugars (glucose) and fatty acids (fatty acids). Once processed, these simple sugars and fatty acids enter the bloodstream as waste molecules. The energy requirements of the body are met by the fatty acids.
Fatty acids are contained in many foods, including fish, nuts, seeds, and some types of dairy products. These foods can actually help regulate the activity of the immune system. The molecule called soluble fiber has a very large hydrophobic structure, which attracts water. This allows the molecule to remain in place, and not to become damaged by enzymes. Therefore, dietary fiber aids in controlling the levels of sugar in the blood stream.
Milk provides a number of key nutrients, which the body needs to maintain normal health. There are two groups of milk that provide different nutrients. The first is cow’s milk, which includes lactose, galactose, and casein. These are the main milk proteins. The second type of milk is goat’s milk, which does not contain lactose, galactose, or casein, but does contain other important nutrients such as zinc, iron, copper, thiamine, and riboflavin.
Carbohydrate provides fuel for the body’s muscles and organs. When carbohydrates are consumed, they are broken down into simple sugars, which are then transported to the liver, which uses them as energy. One type of sugar is Fructose. Fructose is derived from corn syrup, honey, and certain fruits, including some vegetables and some legumes. It is not as easily digested as other sugar types, so it can provide only a minimal amount of nutrients.